The museum is a scientific, cultural and educational complex where materials relating to the cultural heritage of the Armenian people are stored, studied and exhibited. The time coverage of the exhibits ranges from the ancient times to our days. The museum was opened in 1968 as part of the Sardarapat memorial complex founded in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the historical battle between the Armenians and Ottoman Turks – the outcome of the battle would define the further existence of the nation.
The collection of the museum consists of over 70000 valuable exhibits – items of ancient and medieval art and crafts, working tools, carpets, furniture, laces and embroidery, national costumes and jewelry, photographs, paintings, documents and archival materials. Works of contemporary decorative and applied art and cultural exhibits of other nations are also displayed in the museum.